This is yet another masterpiece constructed by the great Afghan King who is known in the history as Sher Shah Suri and whose actual name was Farid Khan. This is Rohtas Fort of Jhelum, Pakistan which was built by Suri in order to resist the Army of Humayun (The Indian Mughal Emperor) after defeating him. He was also threatened by the local Ghakkars, so another reason to build this fort was obviously to block them as well. The other magnum opus of Suri is the famous Grand Trunk Road.
Sher Shah Suri was an efficient and a masterly administrator. Although, he ruled over India for only five years from 1540 to 1545, but he established a new template for civic and military discipline. First time in the history of India, Rupee was regulated as official currency and the postal system of India was also formulated. But Rohtas Fort and G.T. Road are the most significant constructions, raised during the Suri’s reign.
The Rohtas Fort is a mega military architecture which is spread over a circumference of 4 kilometers. Rohtas fort was constructed in the Afghan-Persian architectural style. In fact this was the first time in the history, when both construction styles were mixed together. Rohtas Fort is a magnificent piece of art near to many archaeologists due to its commanding location and it has many high and massive walls along with huge trap gates.
The outer walls are presently lacking symmetry but they have a length of more than four kilometers. They have the average height of about 14 m and the average thickness of 10 m. The wall of the Rohtas Fort has 2 or 3 terraces and varies in thickness, the maximum being 13 meters near the Mori Gate. The terraces are linked by staircases.
Rohtas Fort has twelve main gates which were built in ashlar stone. These gates are known as; Sohail Gate, Shah Chandwali Gate, Kabuli Gate, Shishi Gate, Langar Khani Gate, Talaqi Gate , Mori Gate, Khwas Khani Gate, Gatali Gate, Tulla Mori Gate, Pipawala Gate and Sar Gate.
There are also three Baolis in Rohtas fort made with lime rock and they are named as the Main Baoli , Shahi Baoli and Sar Gate Baoli. The other spectacular buildings include the famous Shahi Mosque which was constructed near the Kabuli Gate. This mosque contains exquisite calligraphic and decorative features.
Queen’s Palace which is commonly spoken as Rani Mahal is a single storey structure and both the exterior and interior are embellished magnificently. Haveli Man Singh is also situated just near to Rani Palace.
UNESCO declared the Rohtas Fort of Jhelum, Pakistan as the World Heritage Site in 1997 and pays tribute to this historical building as under;
“Rohtas Fort is an exceptional example of the Muslim military architecture of central and South Asia, which blends architectural and artistic traditions from Turkey and the Indian sub-continent to create the model for Mughal architecture and its subsequent refinements and adaptations.”